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Magna Graecia In the 8th century B.C., the Ancient Greeks, driven by famine and  social unrest - due to a substantialincrease of the local population -  began to expand to the East, in the Black Sea, and to the West, in the  Mediterranean Sea. They triggered a migration phenomenon, better  known as the "Greek colonization". Some ethnic groups of the Greek  population, among which Dorians, Ionians e Achaeans, arrived in the  territories of Southern Italy - in the current regions of Basilicata,  Calabria, Campania and Puglia - where they edified a vast colonial  empire, the so-called Magna Graecia (Megàle Hellàs).  Once landed on the coasts of the Italic Peninsula, the Greeks founded  several poleis (city-state), fully autonomous and independent from the  motherland. Among them, it is worth pointing out Sybaris, Croton and  Locris. They soon gave rise to sub-colonies, to secure further territorial  expansion and an increase of trade and commercial exchanges.  According to the myths, the Greek would choose the land where to  settle, on the basis of information provided by the Oracle of the  Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. The Oracle would be usually consulted  by the so-called “oikistes”, the person in charge of the colonizing  expedition.  For the descendants of the Greek colonists, this was a period of great  economic wealth as well as of cultural and artistic splendor, with the  flourishing of art, science and philosophy. The expression Magna  Graecia is found for the first time in a passage from the Greek historian  Polybius, only in the 2nd century B.C. However, such concept could  have been created as early as the sixth century BC. The colonies’  inhabitants would use this expression to show their political,  economic, cultural and artistic magnificence against the motherland.  Internal struggles for power and supremacy, progressively led to the  weakening of the thriving cities of the Magna Graecia. Subsequently,  around the 4th and 3rd century B.C., the poleis suffered attacks from  the Bruttii, Italic people of Indo-European descent. The Italic rebels  joined their forces and constituted the so-called Confederatio  Bruttiorum, They began to coin their own currency and elected  Consentia as their capital city. The Bruttii established alliances with  King Pyrrhus of Epirus, Hannibal and Spartacus in the various wars  against the Romans. Eventually, they were submitted by Rome, thus  determining the process of latinization of the colonies. 
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